WHERE THE NAME OF KARSIYAKA COME FROM?
Cordelio is one of the oldest names of Karsiyaka. The name of Karsiyaka comes from ‘Coeur de Lion’. It means ‘Lion Heart’ in French. In 3rd Crusades, armies of Lion heart Richard stayed Karsiyaka and gave the name of Cordelion, which is the name of Lion Heart Richard, to this region. Coeur de Lion turned into Cordelieu, Cordelion, Kordelya (Cordelio) and finally Karsiyaka in time. There are many cafes named ‘Kordelya’ even today.
GEOGRAPGHY OF KARSIYAKA
Location: Karsiyaka District was founded on an 84 km area in the north of Gulf of İzmir. There are Bornova district in the east of Karsiyaka, which includes the southern scopes of the mountain group of Yamanlar, Cigli district in its west and Menemen district in its north. Its height from the sea varies between 1 and 700 meters. Districts such as Bostanli, Alaybey, Nergis were established on the plain, and districts such as Bayrakli, Gumuspala and Yamanlar were established on slope lands. Since the Gediz River poured into the sea from Karsiyaka until the 1870s, when the river's bed was changed, both the gulf was filled and the district was opened to settlement. With the arrival of the railway line in 1876, those living on the slopes settled on the right and left of the railway. In 1890, the start of the ferry services started the second population movement. The district was invaded by Greek on May 15, 1919. On September 9, 1922, the invasion was abolished by the 14th Cavalry Division under the command of Colonel Suphi Kula.
Population: According to latest censuses of Karsiyaka district, 309.790 people were registered.
Agriculture: Total agricultural area of Karsiyaka is 446 hectares. 38.1% of it is used for area of olives. 39 hectares of the agricultural area is irrigated by the public. State irrigation is not conducted in the district. Small agricultural businesses are dominant.
Tomatoes constitute almost half of the amount of vegetables grew in Karsiyaka. Fruit production is also made in the district. In terms of number of fruit trees; pear, plum and tangerine trees are mostly. In terms of production amount; the tangerine is in the first place, followed by plum. Animal husbandry is carried out in the district villages. Especially ovine breeding is common. Milk constitutes the most important part of animal products produced in the district. Honey is produced in 1618 new type hives in 2 villages of the district.
THE HISTORY OF KARSIYAKA
It is known that Karsiyaka has older historical background than Eski İzmir (Old İzmir) with the dating made on the Small Yamanlar Hill and the ceramic layers scattered around the mound that was destroyed during the water tank excavation. The earliest ceramics seen on the hill are dated by the experts to the late stage of the Neolithic age (5000 BC). The oldest pottery seen in Small Yamanlar Hill in İzmir and its environs are blue-yellow ceramics produced in 12th and 13th centuries. Those times are the last periods of Byzantine Empire in İzmir and its environs. Byzantine Empire in our geography has its origins in the Roman Empire, which captured Anatolia at the end of the 2nd century BC and held it for 1500 years. Especially under the strong rule of Rome, during approximately 400 years from the 15th century to the 5th century, Western Anatolia experienced its brightest and richest period. During this period, Smyrna was in competition with Ephesos and Pergoman and is the richest and most prosperous city of the Asian province. There should be no wonder as to the use of finds on the rocky summit at Kucuk Yamanlar Hill almost without interruption from 6000 BC to today. The Hill is located at a point overlooking the Alaybey and Karsiyaka plains formed by three flood streams that carry the rainwater falling to the southern slopes of Yamanlar Mountain and the fertile soil on the slopes with the rainwater. This plain has turned into a fertile soil because it is cleared of sea salt over time. These lands hosted fruitful vegetable and orchards from prehistoric to yesterday. The most important feature of Karsiyaka is that it becomes prominent as a recreation and amusement area in İzmir with its verdant gardens and Yamanlar forests extending to the seaside. Until the end of 18th century, famous western travelers, passing through the place called Cordelio, always mentioned about the paradise green coast. Karsiyaka was on the books as a village which was famous for its olives in 18th century. The railway that passed through Karsiyaka in 1865 led to the rapid development of Karsiyaka. According to the 1891 Aydin Province Yearbook, it has 832 houses and a population of 1080 people. Hamidiye Ferry Company, which was established in 1884, started ferry services to the wooden pier in Karsiyaka and this further accelerated the development. During these years, a bilateral settlement rapidly advanced in Karsiyaka. Levantines and foreign merchants, who bought large lands on the coastline, settled here and started to build mansions and mansions. On the other hand, Ferik Huseyin Hilmi Pasha from Cretan, the İzmir Division Commander, opened the vicinity of Sogukkuyu to the settlement of the Turks.
Turks living in the region of Alucra-Sirali Village of Yamanlar hundreds of years ago started to settle in Sogukkuyu widely. Comezzade Haci Mehmet Efendi, the first mayor of Karsiyaka, built Sogukkuyu Mosque in 1874 and served well in the town. Bostanli named as Papa Scala and Papas Village was a pier where watermelons and melons of Menemen were dropped and loaded. In the light of this information, it is thought that Karsiyaka and its region were also open to settle. Although it was claimed that the city called Kordeleion was built here in ancient times, it was not certain. The connection between present Karsiyaka and Kordeleion doesn’t become definite. Lydians, Persians, Macedonians, Pergamon Kingdom, Romans and Byzantines dominated the region, where the Ancient Period Ionian region gained importance.
Turkmen tribes settled there after War of Malazgirt. Chaka Bey dominated the region for a while. Aydinogullari captured the region in 1310. Crusaders captured the region for a short time in 1334 and although Yildirim Bayezid incorporated it in Ottoman territory during his reign, he defeated to Timur in the Battle of Ankara (1402). The region of Dikili was given to Aydinogullari again by Timur and it was under the ruling of Crusaders and in 1426 it was definitely incorporated in Ottoman territory.
Karsiyaka was under Greek invasion between 15 May 1919 and 9 September 1922 with the invasion of İzmir after World War I. Municipal organization was founded in 1874. The settlement stretched to foothill of the Yamanlar Mountain in the north, extended to the Turan and Bayrakli district and became integrated with İzmir Central District. Afterwards, the Bostanli district was attached to Karsiyaka. Karsiyaka is the metropolitan area of İzmir. It became a district in 1954.
HISTORICAL PLACES IN KARSIYAKA
Usakizade Latife Hanim Mansion:
The mansion belongs to Latife Hanim, the wife of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk and has a special value because it was the mansion where his mother Zubeyde Hanim lived her last days and died on 14 January 1923. Zubeyde Hanim, the mother of the Ghazi, was brought to Karsiyaka via railway in the middle of December in 1922 and moved to the mansion of Usakizade family located behind station. Latife Hanim was the closest person to Zubeyde Hanim, who was looked after with great care. The mansion was known for its pine and palm trees, pool and windmill in the garden. Later, it served as the Courthouse and lastly the Aegean-Science Classroom. Its total area is 2958 m2.
Latife Hanim Mansion, which was expropriated by Karsiyaka Municipality in 2005, was adjudicated to Anit Yapi Insaat in 2007 after it was restored. Today, the mansion has been opened to the service of people of Karsiyaka as Latife Hanim Memorial.
Durmus Yasar Mansion:
It was built in 1914 by Aliotti from Izmir. After the liberation, the Aliotti handed over the mansion to Durmus Yasar. The mansion is located in Karsiyaka mansion at the entrance of Camlik Street.
Van Der Zee Mansion:
It is the building lower floor of which is known as ‘Eski Ev’ Restaurant. Heinrich Van Der Zee, a famous person who loved Turkish people, got the mansion built. Relievo and restoration projects of the mansion have been prepared by the property owners, the projects have been approved by the Izmir No. 1 Cultural and Natural Heritage Conservation Board and currently the restoration works have been completed in line with the approved project. The mansion became available to the people of Karsiyaka as a cafe.
It still ornaments our coast as a gift of Dede Penetti, a person who loved Turkish people. It was built by Armando Penetti, a member of Italian families from Karsiyaka. It is a miniature of a palace in Venice. Its heirs live in the house at the back of the garden.
Löhner Mansion (Epikmen Mansion):
It is the mansion next to the park opposite Bostanli Dolmus bus stop.
It was built by a German named Löhner and it took its name from him. Then it was sold to Epikmen, and it was sold to person from Eskisehir to be demolished and built by them. However, relievo and restoration projects have been prepared by the owners and the approval has been carried out by the competent authorities. The restoration of the mansion has also completed.
Bombaci Ali Cavus Structure
He was born in 1875 and a militia commander. He has great heroism in the liberation of Menemen and Karşıyaka from the invaders. He was the first person to plant the flag in Karsiyaka on September 9, 1922.
The Tomb and Park of Zubeyde Hanim
The tomb of Zubeyde Hanim, who is mother of Great Leader Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, is in Karsiyaka. It is always open to visitors in a park on Zubeyde Hanim Avenue, which goes from the station to the Sogukkuyu side. The tomb is in the courtyard of the Ferik Osman Pasha Mosque. The current shape of the tomb was determined by Ataturk himself. It is in the form of a memorial tomb and it was built in 1940 by Izmir Municipality.
Zubeyde Hanim spent her last days in the mansion that belongs to the Usakizade family and is known as Latife Hanim Mansion and died on 14 January 1923 in this mansion. In mid-December of 1922, Ghazi’s mother Zubeyde Hanim was brought to Karsiyaka by train on the recommendation of doctors and moved to this mansion behind the station of the Usakizade family on the laps by placing her in a wicker chair. The closest person to Zubeyde Hanim, who was looked after with great care, was Latife Hanim.
KARAGOL RECREATION AREA
Karagol Recreation Area, 27 km away from Izmir - Karsiyaka city center, is a natural wonder formed at a height of 810 meters and around a 35-hectare crater lake on Yamanlar Mountain, which is famous for the legend of Tantalus. It resembles a photo frame with its ducks floating in it, willow trees bending its leaves into the water. The picnic area is covered with red pine, larch and willow trees.
Besides being a small and cute lake among the verdant forests of Karagol, Karagol also has a place in mythology. Before the people from Izmir settled in Bayrakli, they lived in the area of Karagol. According to the legend; the Phrygian King Tantalus from Smyrna (İzmir) lived with the people of Phrygia on the Spilios Mountain stretching from Smyrna (Izmir) to Magnesia (Manisa) and ruled his state spreading over Western Anatolia. The mountain of Spilios is a place with very fertile soil and rich mineral deposits. Tantalus, the only person who can sit on the table of the gods, was tormented by the gods of Mount Olympus. Tantalus, who belittled Helen gods and tried to test their powers, was sentenced to great punishment because he believed in the Anatolian goddess Cybele. Tantalus, who was thrown from a cleft of Mount Spilios and sent to Hades, the god of death, was sentenced to eternal hunger and thirst by Zeus, and this punishment was referred to as Tantalus Torture in every corner of the world. The cleft in which Tantalus was thrown became a lake and this lake was called Lake Tantalus. The present name of this lake on Yamanlar Mountain is Karagol.
YAMANLAR MOUNTAIN RECREATION AREA
The recreation area located in Karsiyaka Yamanlar Mountain has an area of 39.71 hectares and has a capacity of 1000 people. The A type recreation area (Overnight and accommodation can be done) is 25 km away from Izmir province. The area, which is not currently available for use, is at the stage of giving with a protocol to Karsiyaka Municipality by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry.