İZMİR PROVINCIAL DIRECTORATE OF CULTURE AND TOURISM

BAYINDIR

BAYINDIR DISTRICT

Bayındır district consists of 38 residential units including the center. A part of the settlement in the district is located in the mountain slopes facing the south, and the other part is located in lowland. County town consists of 22 neighborhoods.

Limited sources of livelihood in the mountain villages causes rapidly decline in the population, and the presence of fertile plains in the lowland villages causes partial population growth.  That agriculture is not sufficiently supported by industry and service sector limits the development of the population and in parallel with the administrative units.

GEOGRAPHY:

Location:

The survey of Bayındır district is 588 km². Ödemiş district is located in the east ,Tire district is located in the south, Torbalı district is located in the west and, and Kemalpaşa and Turgutlu districts are located in the north of Bayındır.  The district center is located on the southern slopes of the Bayındır and Basra hills above the mountain ranges extending perpendicular to the Aegean Sea. Küçük Menderes river coming out of the east constitutes the border of the district with Tire district.

Climate:

Mediterranean climate prevails in the region. Summers are hot and dry, and winters are cold and rainy. When going towards the north differences in the climate are outstanding. A significant portion of the annual precipitation falls in the autumn and winter months. Snowfall is rarely seen at higher altitudes.

Landforms:

The surface form of the district area; the northern part is covered with mountains in east-west direction while 
in the southern part, the alluvial and colluvial soils lie in the form of a strip in the valley floor and the foot area where Küçük Menderes River is located. Natural vegetation is a mixture of olive and forest in the mountainous region. As going higher, pine vegetation is dense. Various types of oak, calabrian pine and black pine also occupy a quite large area.

Rivers / Lakes:

Küçük Menderes River is the most important stream in the district. This river lies in the southern part of the district along the east-west direction. There are no rich water sources that feed Küçük Menderes river in the district boundaries. Başdeğirmen, Hıca, Destere and Pasha water streams, whose regimes are irregular, can transport their water to the Küçük Menderes river if winter rains overflow.

THE HISTORY OF BAYINDIR DISTRICT:

Ancient Period:

When Bayındır district was found to be a settlement is not exactly known. Researchs in the region reveal that respectively in 3000 B.C. Hittites, in 700 Phrygians and Lydians ruled in the region.  And in 900 A.D. Byzantines, after the year of 1084 Seljukians and also after the year of 1425 Ottomans took over in the region.

Turkish Domination Era:

In the center of Bayındır district there was a settlement in the Byzantine period. With the arrival of Seljukians, at the beginning of the 14th century Bayındır Turkmenian Tribe, which is one of the 24 Oghuz Tribes Üçoklar, is known to have formed a new settlement on its behalf by Orhan Gazi. Rumor has it that the first settlement was formed on the margin of Ergenli River and this settlement was later moved to where the center of district is now because of the floods.

It is indicated in the Evliya Çelebi Book of Travels that Bayındır is Pasha Appanage. According to the Land Registry records, this was given to Selim II during the period of his governorship. After Selim II succeeded the throne, it was donated to Sadık Pasha, one of his grooms, as an appanage valued at 80 lucres. Şemsettin Sami Kamus-ul Alam has also written about there were 28  mosques, 1 madrassa and 2 Christian schools, also that Bayındır is the jurisdiction of İzmir Sanjak belonging to Aydın province and has a population up to 400. However, Christian schools have not reached until today. Katip Çelebi and German Historian Phlippson use the same statements about the history of Bayındır in their works.

While previously being a township center in 1871, it has become municipality in 1871 and the center of district  in 1875.

The district suffered a Greek invasion in May 30, 1919 and was saved in September 4, 1922 after 2.5 years of invasion. Until that date, in the mosaic of the population of Bayındır district, it is outstanding that as the majority of them being Turkish, also Cypriots, Armenians and Jews have lived in there. After the proclamation of the Republic, the first planning maps were made in 1938 in Bayındır, which is a center of the district belonging to İzmir.

SOCIAL AND CULTURAL STRUCTURE:

Social life in the district are under the influence of two different social structures.  On the one hand, there is the urban structure of İzmir Province, which is very close, and on the other hand there is the Anatolian type rural structure present in the villages of the district.  These two effects dominate the characteristics of the transition period from rural to urban life throughout the district. While some human relations are carried out according to village-type community traditions, other human relations are carried out entirely according to the life of the city community.  Social mobility in the district is weak. Peasant market is established in the center and towns. Every year, a flower festival and camel wrestling are also  organized in different places and times.

Work and working life in the district is parallel to the economic structure.  In rural areas, agricultural activities, agriculture, animal husbandry and partly forestry are dominant.  Activities in this area are mostly carried out in the form of family businesses.  In mountain villages unemployment is high and income is low.  In the district center, towns and central villages there is very limited activity in service and industrial sectors along with agriculture. However, the scale of these activities is not at a level that can change the economy of the district based on agriculture. Seasonal agricultural labor is active in the summer.

ECONOMIC STRUCTURE:

Most of the people of the district are engaged in agriculture and animal husbandry. Other fields of activity are trade, various professions in the service sector and a very limited level of industrialism.

Floriculture in Bayındır:

There are 230 small and medium sized enterprises producing ornamental plants in Bayındır. Production is carried out in indoor (greenhouse) and open areas.

District; with the increase in production in recent years, has taken the first place in the production of outdoor ornamental plants.  The outdoor ornamental plants produced contribute to the city's beauty by being purchased especially by the municipalities.

The history of floriculture in the district dates back to the Ottoman period.  It is known that rose plant was grown in the region known as Gülbahçe based upon the past, and that the rose plant was sent to the Ottoman palaces, madrasas and hospitals from here and the name of this region was also referred to as Gülbahçe. Until the 1980s, flower production was carried out on a small scale in home gardens and these flowers were sold in crates in the neighborhood markets. After 1980s, floriculture was developed by the producers as a source of income in itself, product variety was increased and today, it is sold to every corner of the country with its rich varieties such as garden, salon, seasonal and tree species.  In addition, a flower festival has been organized in order to introduce Bayındır floriculture, to create new markets, to increase employment and to develop the floriculture sector.

As Bayındır, the floriculture sector, which constitutes an important share of the district's income and which is the source of income for a significant part of the population in employment, has been the service industry of the district.

Floriculture activities started in the district 25 years ago and in recent years developed considerably due to the increasing interest in this subject by the producers and suitability of the conditions of the greenhouse floriculture and the ecological environment.  Upon the development of floriculture on such a scale, the producers in the district were united under a cooperative roof. Founded on 22.03.2002, the Cooperative provides assistance to the members in supplying their floriculture needs and marketing their products, and it works in cooperation with the relevant departments of universities to develop products and production techniques  The cooperative also works to support, to introduce and to market in domestic and abroad of floriculture in Bayındır. Ornamental plants, which are subject to sale and produced, can be delivered immediately as well as the custom production is made upon contract and according to the requests of the buyers.

Main Grown Flower Types:

 Dayı rose, Mimosa, Acacia, Maple, Linden, Rock alyssum, Tree of heaven, Silk tree, German daisy, Aspidistra, Guelder rose, Begonia, Akuba, Barberry, Bride’s veil, Boxwood, Periwinkle, Catalpa, Shrub Acacia, Trumpet Vine, Woodwaxen ,Cassia, Violet, Cranberry, Iron tree, Cedar, Redbud, Japonicas, Palm Gerdania, Lawson’s cedar, Shrub palm, Cotoneaster, Cypress, Wistaria, Cherry Laurel, Sanguis draconis, Elaeagnus , Brier, Eucalyptus, Adam’s needle, Moss-rose, Aralia, Ash tree, Common daisy, Bellis, Peony Ivy, China rose, Rose of sharon, Jasmine, Bachelor’s Button, Ornamental Peach, Juniper, Coral, Lagestromia indica, Lantana, Snapdragon, Oak, Laurel, Lavender, Honeysuckle, Privet, Daisy, Salvia, Mahonia, Magnolia, Chinaberry tree, Ice plant, Hydrangea, Indigo, Myrtle, Oleander, American ivy,, Geranium, Wallflower, Brush flower, Petunia, Clematis, Date tree, Pine Varbana, Cotanese, Pitospurum, Sycamore, Populus, Ornamental plum, Cockscomb, Leyland cypress, Punica granatum, Scarlet firethorn, Sumac, Black locust, Mazan Milisa, Rosemary, Willow, Elderberry, Santolina, Rosette verbena hybrida, Sedum, Garden dusty miller, California pepper tree, Bridewort and Kale.