İZMİR PROVINCIAL DIRECTORATE OF CULTURE AND TOURISM

ALİAĞA


WHERE DOES THE NAME OF ALİAĞA COME FROM ?

Sultan IV . Murat Baghdad gave some land to those who helped him during the Bağdat campaign . He donated Aliağa region to the Abdülkerim Ağa . After Abdülkerim Ağa's death, his lands were shared among his sons and the present-day Aliağa region was left to Çelebi Bey and Ali Ağa . Ali Aga established a large farm here and the region was known by this name.

The story about the name of the district is ; Ali Ağa, the owner of the farm, commits a crime in Istanbul and is sentenced to death. He was rescued by Australian Axeman Edwars (who later became a Muslim and was called Kenan ). Therefore , Ali Ağa leaves his farm to Edwars, provided that he does not change his name. Edwars builds a three-story mansion here. This is the first structure of Aliaga. In 1922, the third floor of the building was demolished by the British artillery fire . In 1933, this mansion was turned into primary school by the governor of İzmir Kazım Dirik. In 1972, the building was demolished and replaced by Atatürk Primary School.

The descendants of Ali Ağa, Çelebi Ağa, Kerim Ağa, Kuzu Bey, Hüseyin Ağa (Hasan Ağa is the only descendant of the lineage) lineages were scattered in places such as Bergama, Bölcek Village, Turanlı, Alibey and Çandarlı.

 

GEOGRAPHY:

District Location:

Aliağa is surrounded by Dumanlı Mountain on the coast of Aegean Sea and Yunt Mountain on the northeast. To the west is the Aegean Sea. Aliaga district; It is surrounded by Manisa in the east, Bergama in the north, Menemen in the south, Foça in the southwest and Aegean Sea in the west and north. The surface area of Aliaga is 412.5 km². İzmir-Çanakkale highway passes through the city and it is a 45-minute drive to İzmir from the district with this double-return road. There is a railway line between Aliağa- İzmir.

Climate:

The climate in Aliağa is Mediterranean climate . The northern winds in the winter and the wind blowing from the west district dominate the summer. In summer the average temperature is between 24-27 degrees. During the day, it is observed that this temperature exceeds 35 ° C. The average temperature in winter is 7 ° C. The coldest month in Aliağa is January.

Earth Shapes:

Rivers / Lakes:

Güzelhisar Stream is the only stream flowing within the borders of the district where Güzelhisar Dam is located. It comes from the Yunt Mountains and flows without drying in summer and winter. The products that are grown in the plains around are used for irrigation and the highest flow rate is 5.70 m³ / sec. and the average flow rate; 3.71 m³ / sec. as measured.


Mountains / Plains :

The mountain ranges are parallel to each other and there are horst zones between a number of depression pits perpendicular to the shore. The Yunt Mountains, located further south of the Bakırçay Plain, lie in the north of Aliağa. To the south is the Smoky Mountain with a height of 1098 meters. Apart from those , there are mountains such as Karahasan Mountain (423 m.), Dedetaşı Mountain (341 m.), Arsız Tepe (334 m.), Academic Mountain (497 m.), Halkalı Hill (789 m.), Sıyırdım Mountain (610 m.) . To the north of the Gediz River is the Helvacı Plain, a first degree agricultural area. Güzelhisar River Plain is the second fertile area for agriculture.

Vegetation Cover :

Although there is a favorable climate in terms of forests in Aliaga, forests have decreased to almost none. Plant types such as juniper, pırnal, chewing gum, akçakesme, mules has took the place of forests . Only near Bozköy, there are 9500 decares of red pine forest. A new red pine forest is being established between the villages of Samurlu and Güzelhisar. The land quality of Aliağa is partly flat and partly mountainous.

HISTORY OF ALIAGA

Ancient Period:

After the Ionian migration, Greek colonies were established in Eolia and Ionia. During the invasion of Anatolia by Persians, most of these cities came under the control of Persians. After Alexander the Great put an end to the command of Persians in 3112 BC, most of these cities came under the domination of Macedonia. After Alexander's death, the region, including Aliaga, came under the command of Pergamon Kingdom . Upon the will of Attalos III, King of Pergamon, the Romans ruled here. After the division of Rome into two (395), the Aliağa region came under the command of the Byzantines. Area   During the reign of Emperor Leon II (717-741), at the end of the treaty with the Arabs; even the region between Izmir and Pergamum was left to Arab rule, when Arabs besieged Istanbul, Arabs withdrew from Anatolia. Important cities of Byzantine Asia are: Pergamos, Elaia, Pitane, Tianai, Perperine. These cities are the cities of Aikos Valley . The Turkish influence began to be observed in Anatolia with the Komnen bloodline and after the Battle of Malazgirt in 1071, Anatolia began to rapidly get Turkish . After the Battle of Malazgirt (1071), some of the Turkmen tribes settled here. Ali Agha farm area, which became a village since 1867, Emir-i Sharif and Saruhan Sanjak Guzelhisar-i document, next to Ali Ağa farm is allowed to establish a public market on Sundays ”,   It is written. In 1875, Eliza Baltacı, wife of Baltacızade, who was attached to Ottoman nationality, died. Since he does not have an heir, his lands remain with the state. The state puts the land on sale with an advertisement. Aliağa, in the 1890 Sal Aydın Province Yearbook;; It is registered as a village due to Menemen jurisdiction . During this period, the village had a population of 801 in 101 households.

Republican Period :

After the First World War , when the Greeks landed troops in İzmir on May 15, 1919, the inhabitants of Aliağa were separated and Greeks from Lesbos Island settled in their places . Aliağa was occupied by the Greeks on 9-10 June 1919 . The Turkish Army arrived at Aliağa Farm on September 13, 1922, after the enemy was was forced to pull back to falling into the sea on 9 September in İzmir . Greek troops and local Greeks in the Aliaga Farm emptied the region at this time.   1.5 years after the liberation year, Turkish immigrants who came from Greece in 1924 through the “Exchange” were settled in the Kazım Dirik Neighborhood on Aliağa Farm.
At the end of 1936 and in 1937, the Bulgarian immigrants were settled in the Kurtuluş Quarter. After the immigrants settled in these lands, Aliağa Farm became one of the parish centers of the Republican period. In 1951-1952 new immigrants came to Aliağa from Bulgaria and Yugoslavia . These immigrants found themselves in different places in Aliağa. When the population suddenly increased on these dates, a municipal organization was established in 1952 in Aliağa .

On the dates mentioned, Aliağa was once again Aliağa Farm. On Fridays, a bazaar was built around the area called the “Government Garden between the building of the Nahiye Directorate and Mehmet Saka's grocery store on a weekly basis. The 1970s were the founding years of TPAO and Izmir Refinery . There was a rapid development. Together with the contractors to carry out the works, technical staff and job seekers flocked to Aliağa. The population was constantly growing and economic life was getting more and more alive. By January 14, 1982, Aliaga had become a district . When the town reached the district status, the new administrator and officers were appointed . The number of people who came to the district from all over the country and the number of people living here increased .


aliaa

HISTO
RICAL PLACES IN ALİAĞA: 

The area where Aliağa is located is an old settlement area. In this region called Eolis in ancient times; Ancient cities such as Kyme, Myrina, Aigai (Nemrutkale), Gryneion (Gyrna) and Pitane (Çandarlı) were established.

Kyme :   

12 Kyme City, being the largest city among Aiol, is located near Aliağa Çakmaklı Village. Kyme, located in the Gulf of Nemrut, was founded by the tribe from Fricio Locrico, according to Strabo; Although the exact date of establishment of the city is not known, a reference to “Pelasgiler brings to mind the first centers that started to be established on the Anatolian coasts and is dated to 1046 BC with the same foundation date as Myrina. Kyme, which has maintained its importance since the Archaic Period due to its harbor, is not only a port city, but also one of the first cities to suppress money. In the first coins; The outer circle is placed inside the square, the horse head figure is noteworthy. In the Classical Period, Kyme had an important place in the political situation of the Aegean cities; He was appointed as the president of the cities forming the Aegean Union. It is understood from the coins printed at that time and an amphora handle where the emblem of the city was printed. It is understood from the archaeological remains and ancient sources that the city continued to maintain its importance during the Roman period, especially during the early periods of the Empire .

Although there is no extensive information about the Byzantine and Medieval Periods, the small amount of remains found and the fact that a cardinal was a residence suggests that it is of particular importance in this period. The first investigations in the region were started by Reinach who opened excavation pits in Kyme while he was excavating near Myrina in the late 19th century; A necropolis and several stone statues from the Archaic Period were found during the excavations. The first truly archaeological excavation was conducted by A. Salaç . It was built under the direction of Salaç and during the excavations, temples, porticos and houses were found. The ruins of Kyme have been looted like the ruins of other cities; The stones were used by the local residents in the construction of new buildings. Therefore, very few ruins have survived from the famous city of Kyme.

In the works carried out by the Izmir Archaeological Museum since 1980, the Agora and its surrounding structures were unearthed, and a room with a beautiful mosaic floor was seized near the remaining part of the ruins. Between the years 1982-1985, the Izmir Archaeological Museum and the Catania University only the coastline was discussed in the joint study. In the middle of the shoreline , there have been investigations on the outer part of the site, which is limited to a height of horseshoe in the same direction as the starting point of the big breakwater, where there are important harbor structures, although most of them are buried in the sea or can be seen in water; the most important find recovered during the excavations is the large medieval structure found under the horseshoe-like hill; to protect the area remaining in the middle part of the harbor. century as a castle. In 1986, the Archaeological, Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine Periods were found in Kyme. Archaic settlement structures were first encountered. During the ongoing works, Kyme City was built in the Roman agora, theater, hot water bath, cistern merchant house, aqueduct, colonnaded road and castle walls, wastewater, septic tank and sewer system, numerous amphora ruins and 150 meters of harbor. number of findings. A Byzantine church was also found. Studies in Kyme City has been running by Professor Dr. Antonio La Marca from the University of Calabria in Italy.

KYME ANTİK KENTİ

 

Myrina:

Myrina, an important city of Aiolis region, is an ancient city in the last bay of Çandarlı Bay in Western Anatolia. It is on the slope of a small hill after Aliağa on the İzmir-Çanakkale road and after turning the bridge over Güzelhisar (Pythikos) Brook. Myrina made its name in history with talent payment to Delos Union for the first time. Myrina BC In the years after 560, the King of Lydia recognized the sovereignty of Croesus. 454-425'de was named in the Athens Confederation. During the invasion of Persia in Anatolia, BC. In 475, Xerkes gave this city to Gongylos. }Myrina BC In 334, like all Aiol states, he had to accept the sovereignty of Alexander the Great; After his death BC. In 188, he joined the Kingdom of Pergamum.   The vast majority of Myrina's aboveground remains have been used for centuries in the construction of other nearby cities, and the city has been completely destroyed. Therefore, apart from the port stones, the architectural parts of the city did not survived . Although there are almost no surface remains, the widespread use of ceramic fragments and terracotta figurines has attracted the attention of researchers here. Thus, Myrina is not known for its structures but for its terracotta figurines. The potsherds, figurines, architectural friezes and sarcophagus covers spread on the hills where the city of Myrina once lived prove the rich culture of the city.

Gryneion:

The establishment of the city famous for its sanctuary of Apollo is not known. Strabo says that the most famous Apollon shrines in Western Anatolia are here. Gryneion's name for the first time in history BC . He was a member of the Athens Naval Union in the 5th century AD. According to written sources, Gryneion initially paid 1/6 of its income as a talent to the union. This tax was increased to 1/3 in the following years . At the end of the 5th century BC , Athens was defeated in Sparta during the Peloponnesian battles and lost its power in Anatolia to the Persians.As a result, Gryneion started to pay 50 talents per year to the Persian Satrab. Persians superiority in the region lasted until BC 335 . Before Alexander went to Anatolia, he sent his Macedonian commander Parmeion to prepare for the preliminary work and to build a bridge. Thus, the independence of Gryneion was ended and it was attached to Myrina during the Hellenistic period. After that, the name of the city began to be mentioned in history only because of the sanctuary of Apollo. In the Roman era, the city became very deflated and became a temple site of Myrina. It is now known as the temple of Apollo, which was accepted as a place of prophecy in history .

Aigai:

You can leave the main road from Yeni Şakran and go through Köseler village with a road which lenghts 13 km . It was one of the 12 cities of Herodotus mentioned . It was founded by the Aeolians who colonized the northern Aegean since BC 1100. At the upper part of the walls of the old house VI. century, the monuments of the column remains can be seen . The agora was built on the hillside, the east side of it is in a very good condition, the middle floor and the lower floor are arranged as a warehouse .

 

 

SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC STRUCTURE:

Its population:

While there was no significant development in the population of Aliağa, which was a small fishing village in the 1960s, population growth accelerated starting from the 1980s. According to the results of the Address Based Population Registration System in 2016, its population is 91.026.

With the establishment of the industry dominated by the Iron-Steel and Petro-Chemical sectors, the district has developed rapidly and turned into an industrial center attracting the population of the Aegean within 15-20 years. Rapid industrialization has also caused rapid urbanization, foreign migration and population concentration.

Aliağa, which had agricultural intensive economic activity until the beginning of 1960s, was accepted as a "Heavy Industry Zone in accordance with the 1961 Constitution. industrial organizations in our region began to be established by increasing the speed of industrialization has continued.

Güzelhisar Dam:

In order to meet the water needs of Petkim and other industrial facilities, Petkim has been assembled by construction and the operating right is the main source of water in DSİ. It was put into operation in 1981; It has a volume of 158 million m³. From the Güzelhisar Dam; drinking, using and industrial water is provided.

Çakmaktepe Natural Gas Cycle Power Plant:

It is located in Aliağa Organized Industrial Zone. Production started on October 8, 2007 at the Çakmaktepe Natural Gas Power Plant.


EÜAŞ Aliağa Gas Turbines and Combined Cycle Power Plant:

 

 

Aliağa Gas Turbine Combined Cycle Power Plant was built by Italian Fiat Avio Company and commissioned in 02.09.1975.

Enka Aliağa (İZMİR) Natural Gas Power Plant:  

It is a partnership between Enka Holding and US Intergen.

     
GÜZELHİSAR BARAJI